APA style uses a two-part system, where each source used will have an in-text citation and a reference list citation. The in-text citation appears within the narrative of your work and is a shortened version of the reference list citation, which appears after the end of the narrative. The in-text and reference list citation will both include the author's name and the date published. See APA website for a detailed discussion of in-text citations.
Use an in-text citation when you summarize, paraphrase, or directly quote a source. If it isn't your original idea, cite it. In-text citations are generally placed at the end of a sentence.
In-text citations include the author's last name(s) and the year of publication. It also includes the page number if citing a direct quotation. If the author's name and the year are included in the sentence this is called a "narrative citation" and no in-text citation in parentheses is needed.
In-text citations are generally placed at the end of a sentence. The period at the end of the sentence comes after the closing parenthesis. If there is a direct quotation, the quotation mark goes before the parentheses. For example:
However, if the in-text citation follows a block quote, the period goes at the end of the sentence instead, before the parentheses of the in-text citation.
Generally it is good practice to track down the original source, if possible, and quote it directly. If this isn't an option, use the phrase "as cited in". For example:
According to Luna... (2020).
(Salas & D'Agostino, 2020)
According to Salas and D'Agostino... (2020).
(Martin et al., 2020)
According to Martin et al.,... (2020).
(Stanford University, 2020)
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)
According to the National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]... (2020).
("Super," 2017, para. 5)
"I was stationed at Pearl Harbor" (J. Rivera, personal communication, March 24, 2019).
Bede and Xing found that "the most commonly prescribed treatment is often ineffective" (2015, p. 10).
"The crowd laughed loudly and long" (Johnson, 2015, para.23)
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