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Citation Guides

Guides on everything related to citing sources: MLA and APA style, citing websites, and avoiding plagiarism.

APA for materials on Talon

General rules
  • If the work does not have a title, give a general description of the work and put in brackets along with the format. 
    • For example [PowerPoint slides on anatomy of the human heart].
  • Give the URL for the login page of Talon.
PowerPoint Slides

Author or Creator of slides if known. (Date). Title if given [PowerPoint slides]. Talon. URL

Uthoff, S. & Miller, S. (2019). Information literacy for students [PowerPoint slides]. Talon.

Lecture Notes or Handouts

Springfield, D. (2019, October 10). [Lecture notes on child abuse]. Talon.

APA for Guidelines and Policies

General rules for Guidelines and Standards
  • Use for citing professional guidelines published by a nonprofit or professional organization
  • For the number, match the label to what the guideline is called (for example: Guideline or Standard).

Name of Organization that Made the Standard. (Date). Title of the standard (Standard No.). URL

College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. (2016). Guidelines for hand hygiene.

Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. (2017, September). Preventing falls and reducing injury from falls (4th ed.).

In-text citation for guidelines:

(Name of Organization that Made the Standard, Year)

(College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta, 2016)


Hospital Policy, found on organization's website:

Name of Organization or Author. (Date). Title. URL

University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics. (2018). Infection control procedures.

Hospital Policy, from unpublished internal document:
  • If the document if limited to the hospital's intranet, cite as a personal communication. Use in-text citation only, no reference citation. 
  • If the name or organization is included in your sentence, include only "personal communication" and date in the parentheses.

(University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, personal communication, October 22, 2019)

According to internal documentation from the University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics (personal communication, October22, 2019)...

APA for Personal Communications

General rules
  • Use for emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos and the like.
  • Personal communications do not have a public record, so they are not included on your references page, but use only an in-text citation.
  • Include the initials and last name or the communicator.
  • If the name is included in your sentence, include only "personal communication" and date in the parentheses.
  • Provide as exact a date as possible.

In speaking with T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2019)...

(V. G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 2019)

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