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Citation Guides

Guides on everything related to citing sources: MLA and APA style, citing websites, and avoiding plagiarism.

APA for Film, TV or Video

General rules
  • The author of audio-visual materials is mainly determined by the type of source. Follow the person's name with a description of their role, if needed for clarity:
    • For a film, use (Director)
    • For a TV series, use (Executive Producer)
    • For a TV episode, use (Writer) and (Director) of episode
    • For a podcast, use (Host) or (Executive Producer)
    • For online streaming video, use Person or Group who uploaded the video
  • After the title of the work, describe the format and put in square brackets. For example:
    • Wizard of Oz [Film]
TV series episode

Writer name (Writer), & Director name (Director). (Date aired). Title of episode (Season and Episode numbers) [TV series episode]. In Executive producer name (Executive Producer), Series title. Distributor or Production company of series. 

Bradley, E. F. (Writer), & Brown, D. B. (Director). (2010, May 21). Desperate women (Season 15, Episode 11) [TV series episode]. In S. Smith (Executive Producer), 60 minutes. CBS.

Film or video
  • Use for formally distributed films on DVD, streaming, or other format.
  • Use for films viewed on Library databases like Kanopy or Films on Demand. Streaming service name and URL and not included in reference.

Director name (Director). (Date of release). Title of film [Film]. Distributor or Production company. 

Mock, F. L. (Director). (1995). Maya Lin: A strong clear vision [Film]. Paramount Pictures.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Harris, A., Seidl, A., & Erickson, L. (Directors). (2009). The Hollywood librarian: A look at librarians through film [Video]. Overstock Productions. 

YouTube and other informal online videos
  • Use for informal online videos with little production information included.
  • For videos on online streaming services such as Netflix or Kanopy, use the the "Film or Video" section above.

Name of person or group who posted video. (Date posted). Title of video [Video]. Name of website. URL

Kirkwood Libraries. (2018, September17). Welcome to the library [Video]. YouTube.

Uthoff, S. (2019, December 13). Drive to the Laura Ingalls Wilder cabin. [Video]. YouTube.

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