The citation format for a film or television episode depends on whether your focus is on a particular person involved in the creation (director, actor, writer, etc.) or on the film or episode as a whole.
If the focus of your discussion is on a person, you begin with that person's name and the role they play. Some roles include: director, creator, performer, writer.
If the discussion is of the film or episode as a whole, you may begin the citation with the title.
Example of film, focus on a person:
Last name, First name, role. Title of Film. Distributor of film, Date released.
Garland, Judy, performer. The Wizard of Oz. Loew's, 1939.
Examples of film, focus on entire work, DVD:
Title of Film. Directed by First name Last name, performances by First name Last name, Distributor, date released.
It's a Wonderful Life. Directed by Frank Capra, RKO, 1946.
Philadelphia Story. Directed by George Cukor, performances by Cary Grant, Katharine Hepburn, and James Stewart, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1940.
Examples of film, streaming:
Last name, First name, role. Title of Film. Distributors of Film, date released. Website or Database Name, URL.
Talreja, Sanjay and Sut Jhally, filmmakers. Advertising and the End of the World. Media Education Foundation, 1997. Kanopy, kirkwood.kanopystreaming.com/video/advertising-end-world.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Directed by Milos Forman, United Artists, 1975. Talon, talon.kirkwood.edu.
Big Fish. Directed by Tim Burton, Sony Pictures, 2003. Netflix, www.netflix.com.
Example of TV episode, focus on a person:
Last name, First name, role. "Title of Episode." Title of Series, season number, episode number, Distributor, date released.
Whedon, Joss, creator. "Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, season 4, episode 10, Twentieth Century Fox, 14 Dec. 1999.
Example of TV episode, focus on a person, viewed online:
Duffer Brothers, creators. "Chapter Two: The Weirdo on Maple Street." Stranger Things, season 1, episode 2, Netflix, 15 July 2016. Netflix, www.netflix.com.
Example of TV episode, focus on a person, viewed on an app:
Evans, Simon and Phin Glynn, creators. "The Dirty Mochyns." Staged, season 2, episode 3, Infinity Hill - GCB Films, 2021. Hulu app.
Examples of videos posted online:
If you don't have the director's name, you may use the poster's name or user name, or company name where appropriate.
If no creator, poster, or director's name is given, begin with the title.
Director Last Name, First Name, director. “Title of Video/Segment.” Title of Website/Program, Publisher of Website, Date of Release, URL.
McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
Podcasts, like films or television shows, may be delivered through different stations, services, or apps. We give a number of examples below, based on the different ways you might have accessed the podcast.
Remember, any elements not available for your source may be left out.
You may also choose to apply the rules listed above under "Film, Television, and Video" about which contributor or creator was your focus in your use of the resource. For example, your discussion of the podcast might focus on the person being interviewed, on the host's commentary, or on the words spoken by the narrator. Include this information about the role of the contributor in your citation.
Podcast, accessed through the podcast's website:
Name(s) of creator, host, or narrator. "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast, other contributors if relevant, season and episode number if available, publisher, date published, URL.
Del Toro, Guillermo. "Guillermo del Toro." WTF, interviewed by Marc Maron, episode 1290, 23 Dec. 2021, www.wtfpod.com/podcast/episode-1290-guillermo-del-toro.
Podcast, accessed through a browser and part of a larger website:
Name(s) of creator, host, or narrator. "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast, other contributors if relevant, season and episode number if available, publisher, date published. Title of Website, URL.
Douthat, Ross, et al., hosts. "The Pandemic vs. The President." The Argument, The New York Times, 12 Mar. 2020. The New York TImes, www.nytimes.com/2020/03/12/opinion/the-argument-coronavirus-trump.html.
Clark, Josh, and Chuck Bryant, hosts. "How Bail Works." Stuff You Should Know, 23 Feb. 2010. iHeart, www.iheart.com/podcast/105-stuff-you-should-know-26940277/episode/how-bail-works-29468033/.
Podcast, accessed through an app:
Name(s) of creator, host, narrator, or interviewee. "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast, other contributors if relevant, season and episode number if available, publisher if available, date published. Name of app.
Roose, Kevin, narrator. "One: Wonderland." Rabbit Hole, New York Times, 16 Apr. 2020. Spotify app.