The in-text citation is a way to quickly acknowledge where you got the idea or quote you used in your writing. It also points your reader to the complete citation for that source in your Works Cited list, because the in-text citation starts with the first word(s) of your Works Cited citation.
Use an in-text citation when you summarize, paraphrase, or directly quote a source. If it isn't your original idea, cite it.
At the end of a quotation: closing quotation mark, opening and closing parentheses, then period.
"...in treatment" (Wall 809).
At the end of a sentence: closing parenthesis, then period.
Others found many changes (Andrews and Curtis 65).
At the end of a block quote: place ending punctuation first, then the parentheses.
...In both countries it was clearer than crystal to the lords of the State preserves of loaves and fishes, that things in general were settled for ever. (Dickens 1)
Only use page numbers if they are given in the source. You do not need to count paragraphs or pages, just leave the page number out. See below for more details on numbered paragraphs and sections.
...they are careful to use words that make it clear they aren't trying to control someone's behavior (Deci and Flaste 106-8).
Deci and Flaste demonstrate that they are careful to use words that make it clear they aren't trying to control someone's behavior (106-8).
Brown based his book Play on research done by experts in many different fields of biology (6).
The study of play in humans has lately been informed by research in many different fields of biology (Brown 36).
Bede and Xing found that the most commonly prescribed treatment was often ineffective (10).
Some experts disagree, claiming that global warming is nothing new (King and Nguyen 22-23).
...these symptoms don't appear until age 14 on average (South et al. 7).
...United States Environmental Protection Agency found that river water quality is profoundly improved with the addition of wetlands in surrounding areas (42).
Another study found that water quality was improved by nearly 38% (United States, Environmental Protection Agency 51).
...arrived, about 100 million years after the first reptiles" (Brown, "Through the Lens" 8).
In "Through the Lens of Play" Brown cites evidence that play has been around since "the earliest warm-blooded creatures" roamed the earth (8).
(Baron 194; Jacobs 55)
...United Stated Environmental Protection Agency found that water quality is profoundly improved with the addition of wetlands in the landscape (par. 8).
...findings were inconclusive (Thomas, sec. 3).
Mary Jones admitted that she had lied "to protect the honor of her father" (qtd. in Hammond 201).
Cedar Rapids Campus Library
Iowa City Campus Library
107 Credit Center Building
If you need disability-related accommodations in order to use the Library, our website, or our resources, please contact the library at email@example.com or 319-398-5697.